Food Equivalents and Substitutions

food equivalents and substitutions

This page gives you an easy reference chart of many common food equivalents, quantities and yields.

You will find answers to food measurement questions such as: how many cups in a pound of flour?, how many chopped apples make a cup?, how many or how much should I buy for my recipe?, and many more.

Below are food equivalents in weight to measurable quantities for many common foods to help your cooking and baking go smoothly.

There are also common food substitutions listed in case you don’t have an ingredient on hand.

Print out this handy chart for reference and tape it to the inside of one of your kitchen cupboards. That way you can find it easily when you need it, but it will be out of sight.

Common Cooking and Baking Food Equivalents

Fruits

Apples

1 medium apple = about 3/4 to 1 cup chopped
2 medium apples = about 1-1/2 cups
1 large apple = about 1 cup chopped
2 large apples = about 2-1/4 cups chopped

Bananas

1 pound = 3 medium= 1-1/3 cups mashed

Berries

1 pint = 1-3/4 cups

Lemon Juice

1 medium lemon = 2-3 Tablespoons juice
5-8 medium lemons = 1 cup

Lemon Rind

1 medium lemon = 1 Tablespoon grated rind

Orange Juice

1 medium orange = 2-3 Tablespoons juice
3-4 medium oranges = 1 cup juice

Orange Rind

1 orange = 2 Tablespoons grated rind

Raisins

1 pound = 3 cups,loosely packed

Vegetables

Onions

8 green onions sliced= 1 cup
4 green onions sliced = 1/2 cup
1 medium onion = 1/2 cup chopped
1 large onion = 3/4 to 1 cup chopped

Tomatoes

1 pound = 3 medium
4 cups = about 100 grape tomatoes, or about 15 grape tomatoes per 1/2 cup

Eggs, Cheese, and Dairy

Eggs

1 egg = 4 Tablespoons liquid
4-5 whole eggs = 1 cup
7-9 whites = 1 cup
12-14 yolks = 1 cup

1 large egg, beaten = a scant 1/4 cup or approximately 3-3/4 Tablespoons of egg

6 eggs to a quart of milk = Perfect baked custard

Egg Whites

8-10 large egg whites = 1 cup
12-14 large egg yolks = 1 cup

Cheese

1/4 pound (4 ounces) = 1 cup shredded
1 pound shredded cheese = 4 cups
4 ounces crumbled Bleu cheese = 1 cup
1 pound American Cheese = 2-2/3 cup cubed

Cream Cheese

3 ounces = 6 Tablespoons

Cream, Heavy or whipping

1 cup = 2 cups whipped cream

Milk, Evaporated

6 ounce can = 2/3 cup
14 ounce can = 1 2/3 cup

Sour milk or Buttermilk

Don’t have any buttermilk in the house? Try powdered buttermilk. You can usually find it in the baking isle.

4 Tablespoons Powdered Buttermilk plus 1 cup of water = 1 cup buttermilk.

Or another alternative is to mix 1 cup sweet milk with one of the following:

1 Tablespoon vinegar or
1 Tablespoon lemon juice or
1-3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar

Baking Ingredients

Baking Powder

1 cup = 5 1/2 ounces

Corn Starch

1 pound = 3 cups

Cracker Crumbs

23 soda crackers = 1 cup
38 saltine crackers = 1 cup crumbs
14-15 graham cracker squares = 1 cup
22 vanilla wafers = 1 cup crumbs

Bread

4 slices of bread = 1 cup crumbs

Pasta

4 oz. (1 to 1-1/4 cup uncooked macaroni) = 2-1/4 cups cooked macaroni
7 ounces spaghetti = 4 cups cooked spaghetti

Flour

Did you realize that flour can have different weights due to many factors? Humidity, climate, temperature and many other things affect the moisture level of flour. After all, it absorbs everything in its surroundings. To accurately measure flour, you really need a kitchen scale to have an good measurement by weight. A one cup measure may weigh anywhere from 4 ounces to 4-3/4 ounces. That can make quite a difference in your baking.

Below are the average food equivalents for flour.

1 pound all-purpose = 3-1/2 to 4 cups
1 pound cake flour = 4 to 4 1/2 cups
1 pound graham flour = 3 1/2 cups
1 pound corn meal = 3 cups

Gelatin

3-1/4 oz. package flavored gelatin = 1/2 cup
1/4 oz. package unflavored gelatin = 1 Tablespoon = 1 envelope

Sugar

1 pound brown sugar = 2-1/2 cups
1 pound cube sugar = 96-160 cubes
1 pound granulated sugar = 2 cups
1 pound powdered sugar = 3-1/2 cups

Vegetable shortening, Margarine, or Butter

1 stick =1/2 cup
1 pound = 2 cups

Chocolate

1 ounce = 1 square
1 pound cocoa = 4 cups ground

Chocolate Chips

6 ounce package = 1 cup

Syrup

16 ounces corn syrup = 2 cups
12 ounces maple syrup = 1-1/2 cups

About the author

Laura Warnke

Laura Warnke is a mom, wife, and Midwest cook that enjoys sharing many of her family's favorite comfort food recipes. She grew up on a farm in Wisconsin and loves to bring that farm-style home cooking to your table.

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